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Kızıldere (Turkey)

Geology, Reservoir Properties


Kızıldere Geothermal Field

The Kızıldere geothermal field is Turkey’s first and high-potential geothermal field explored for energy generation. It is a high temperature metamorphic reservoir situated in the Denizli Province, southwestern Turkey. It is a complex of 3 power plants, Kızıldere-I, -II and -III. 

Kızıldere-I is the first Geothermal Power Plant (GPP) of Turkey commissioned in 1984 with 15 MWe capacity and still operating.
Kızıldere-II with 80 MWe capacity was commissioned in August 2013. The 165 MWe Kızıldere-III GPP is completely operational since March 2018. Nearly 1/3rd of the discharged NCG from Kızıldere-II is sent to a CO2 facility named Linde Gas. Linde Gas processes the CO2 for commercial activities. 

Through the GECO project, CO2 emissions will be reduced for more green geothermal power production while maintaining the sustainability of the reservoir.

Kizildere Geology: A metamorphic reservoir

Deep Kızıldere geothermal reservoirs are hosted in Paleozoic aged metamorphic rocks and covered with Tertiary deposits. The Paleozoic metamorphic rocks are downthrown along a series of semi-parallel east-west trending normal faults with vertical throws of a few hundred meters at the edge of the graben to possibly thousands of meters in the center of the graben. These metamorphic rocks form the basement rocks of the deeper reservoirs located below approximately 1400 m and called the Menderes massive metamorphics. The marble levels of the metamorphic rocks are called İğdecik formation, which represents the intermediate reservoir with an upper boundary of 500 to 1400 m formed also in the Paleozoic era (Şimşek, 2003). The Tertiary starts with Kızılburun formation, which consists of conglomerate, claystone, sandstone, and continues with a shallow reservoir in the upper 500 m. Sazak formation consists of limestone, siltstone and marl formed in the Pliocene period. Cenozoic aged Kolonkaya and Tosunlar formations represent upper zones of the Tertiary. All stratigraphical units are covered by Quaternary aged alluvium and travertine in the field.

Stratigraphic sequence of the Kizildere field

Geological Map of Kizildere Field


  • 3-D sector model is constructed in a smaller area of the Kızıldere geothermal field around the pilot injection well and nearby wells to study closely the impact of reactive transport and geochemical interactions in a particular reservoir scale.
  • Prior to reactive transport modeling, reservoir parameters were determined.
  • The sinks and sources originated from the outer wells were calculated and implemented on the sector model boundaries.
  • The fluid-CO2 mixture will be injected for six months with a 0.11 % weight fraction of CO2 (0.06 kg/s and a total 950 ton of CO2 in 6 months). However, to evaluate the long-term effect of the CO2 injection in the reservoir, three annual injection rates are tested as 500, 2000 and 4000 tons of CO2 for ten years of continuous injection In the modeling study.

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